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In its 1986 article on management of Salmonella spp. in powdered milk products, Habraken et al. stated in the introduction: “The lack of reliability of the mere examination of finished
products when evaluating the microbiological wholesomeness of food products has been known to microbiologists for a long time”, quoting six references, among them one dated from 1931. Following an outbreak of Salmonella Agona in 2005 in France, the investigation team stated in their article report (Brouard et al., 2007): “Routine microbiological controls are
insufficient to detect a low-grade contamination”.